Purpose: To explore the relationship between food insecurity and dietary saturated fat intake in rural Central Appalachia.
Design: Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from a longitudinal interventional study
Sample: Baseline assessment of dietary saturated fat intake and food security in volunteers who had resided in rural Central Appalachia for at least five years and were enrolled in a cooking skills class.
Method: Volunteers (n=56, 89.3% female) completed the USDA Household Food Security Survey Module (HFSSM) and Diet History Questionnaire-II. Average age was 56.5 (range 18-76) years. Average intake of saturated fat was calculated using DietCalc software. Food security was measured using the HFSSM. Descriptive and inferential statistical analyses were conducted using SAS, v. 9.3 with an alpha level of .05.
Findings: High or marginal food security was experienced by 75% with 25% of participants experiencing low/very low food security. Average daily saturated fat was 26 grams. Significant findings included greater saturated fat consumption in men; lower saturated fat consumption with older age; older age being associated with lower food insecurity; and no association between food insecurity and saturated fat intake. Average daily saturated fat gram intake was significantly lower for females than males; the group means were 23.6 (SD = 12.4) and 49.6 (SD = 15.0) for these two groups, respectively (t = 4.8, P < .001). For every 10-year increase in age, there was a 2.7 gram decrease in daily saturated fat intake.
Conclusions: Historical food traditions and method of food preparation likely contribute to the lack of an association between high food security and saturated fat intake in rural Appalachia. Food insecurity was not associated with saturated fat intake in our sample. Additional research is needed to determine to the full impact of food insecurity on dietary fat intake in Appalachia.
Keywords: Food Insecurity, Appalachian Region, Fatty Acids Saturated, Poverty
Acknowledgments: This study was funded by the National Institute of Nursing Research Grant 5K23NR014883-02.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share (for non-commerical purposes) the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).